Inside the February 2005 print
edition of Canadian Healthcare Technology:
Feature Report: Developments in diagnostic
McMaster to launch biomedical engineering school
Bell Canada is contributing $450,000 over three
years to McMaster University for the creation of an integrated
systems laboratory, part of the upcoming McMaster School of
IMPROVE-IT makes progress
IMPROVE-IT, a project to assess the value of
information technology in hospitals and healthcare organizations
across North America, has now developed the metrics it will use in
OR scheduling simulation
Physicians and computer scientists in British
Columbia have created a new system to model the flow of patients
through surgical suites. The system will be used to reduce backlogs
in surgical departments.
READ THE STORY
What’s new in imaging? Find out at the RSNA
Over 60,000 radiologists, technologists and
vendors converged at the RSNA conference for an educational
brush-up, to transact business and to tap into the latest industry
READ THE STORY
Telemedicine in Nunavut
Physicians are able to improve the speed and
quality of care to residents of Nunavut, in Canada’s far north,
through the use of telemedicine and satellite connections. The
technology has been a boon to caregivers and patients.
RAI solution boosts LTC in BC
Sophisticated medical programs are steadily
emerging on handheld computers, such as the Palm. Among the most
recent and useful applications is ebm2go, short for Evidence-based
Medicine to Go, a program that enables mobile docs to check the
PLUS news stories, analysis, and features and more.
Mac’s new biomedical school will collaborate to create innovations
By Jerry Zeidenberg
HAMILTON, ONT. – Bell Canada is contributing $450,000
over three years to McMaster University for the creation of an
integrated systems laboratory, a facility that will be part of the
upcoming McMaster School of BioMedical Engineering.
The university is currently in the midst of an $8
million fund-raising campaign for the School of BioMedical Engineering,
which it intends to open in the fall of 2005 with a new building on
campus. It’s to be run as a 50-50 partnership by the faculties of
engineering and health sciences.
According to engineering Dean Mo Elbestawi, the
university has already reached 70 percent of the funding target, and
will announce several new sponsors by the spring of 2005.
Dean Elbestawi told Canadian Healthcare Technology
that the School of BioMedical Engineering will contain eight to ten
labs, including integrated systems, medical devices, biomaterials,
biomechanics, and diagnostic imaging. The school will also delve into
surgical robotics and telemedicine.
Last September, the project received a $450,000
donation from MDA, the company that developed the Canadarm used in space
by NASA. MDA’s contribution is to be used for a medical robotics lab.
Dr. Elbestawi said the upcoming biomedical school
will focus on graduate education and research, and will conduct its work
in conjunction with the university’s medical school and with
private-sector technology companies.
In this respect, the school will be unique. “There’s
no other biomedical school in Canada that’s based on an equal
partnership with a medical faculty,” said Dr. Elbestawi.
The aim, he said, is to create one of the top
biomedical schools in North America using a synergistic approach that
results in technological breakthroughs. Dr. Elbestawi said researchers
at the university are already leaders in areas such as tissue
engineering, synthetic materials for artificial bones and joints, and
hearing aid advances.
Assisted by partners in the faculty of health
sciences and the private sector, he expects the bioengineering school to
produce innovations in these areas and many others. In the area of
surgical robotics and telemedicine, the university has been working with
Dr. Mehran Anvari at St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, which operates
the Centre for Minimal Access Surgery. It’s a centre of excellence for
the use and development of keyhole and robotic surgery, and telesurgery
using sophisticated telecommunication systems.
“Dr. Anvari is one of our key partners and we’ll
continue working with him,” said Dr. Elbestawi.
In the realm of diagnostic imaging, the engineering
school has been collaborating with the Brain and Body Institute at St.
Joseph’s, which is using powerful imaging modalities – including PET/CT
– to investigate a wide range of medical problems.
Dr. Elbestawi said the biomedical school is currently
seeking private-sector companies to partner with in diagnostic imaging.
Overall, the Hamilton area is building capabilities and synergies to
become a powerhouse in the creation of biomedical technologies. “We’re
very ambitious people,” he said.
Bell’s $450,000 donation will be made through Bell
University Labs, a private-public partnership between Bell Canada and
universities across the country. Through alliances, Bell University
Laboratories contributes to the development of communication
technologies in Canada and allows for the development of new
discoveries. “Bell is at the forefront of innovation and is well
positioned to support important biomedical engineering advancements in
tele-robotics, tele-informatics, and other complex IP-based
technologies,” said Bell Canada vice president Brian O’Shaughnessy.
IMPROVE-IT plans methods for measuring value of healthcare IT
By Kevin Leonard and Dean F. Sittig
TORONTO – The IMPROVE-IT Institute held its first
conference last November at the University of Toronto, and involved
people from a wide variety of stakeholder groups to define how to best
measure the impact of IT on hospitals and large healthcare
The newly formed Institute is a collaborative
research initiative that attempts to provide evidence that increased IT
availability and use leads to improved clinical quality, safety, and
effectiveness with an emphasis on the inpatient hospital setting.
For specific consideration, we have defined
measurement indicators in three areas:
• IT spending (both initial and on-going investment);
• technology infusion (i.e., system availability, adoption and
• health outcomes (e.g., clinical efficacy, efficiency, quality, and
At present, the following members have expressed
support for the initiative:
• Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
• University of Victoria
• Park Nicollet Health Services
• Kaiser Permanente Northwest
• University of Washington
• University of Virginia Health System
• Regenstrief Institute, Inc.
• New York-Presbyterian Hospital
• University Health Network, Toronto
• Calgary Health Region, Calgary
• Partners Health System – Boston, MA
• Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
One objective of the conference was to illustrate
that many lessons could be learned from investments that have been made
to date in healthcare. Unfortunately, we have not found an easy way of
documenting this experience so that hospitals (as well as other health
service providers) can access the lessons learned. As a result, the
healthcare field continually builds information systems for the first
time, so to speak.
In other industries, experience grows over time when
generations of systems are developed. In healthcare, due to its late
start with the intensive use of IT, there is very little longitudinal
Therefore, much of our experience must come from
other organizations within healthcare that are designing or implementing
similar systems. Unfortunately, this sharing is not happening!
Many IT implementations are fraught with failures,
and people associated with these lessons are reluctant to have that
information publicized. What must be emphasized is that this was the
case with many other industries as well – failures within the realm of
IT implementation are not unique to healthcare. IMPROVE-IT believes that
this experience sharing can best be done through objective measurement,
with the emphasis on lessons learned and not on laying blame.
Consequently, the first day of the conference was
spent discussing failures across the stakeholder groups. The
presentations demonstrated, first hand, the strategy and the
implementation of many information systems initiatives throughout North
America. Each of these perspectives brought some soul-searching and
lessons learned, as every one of the initiatives had significant hurdles
The second day of the conference focused on
measurement, with two presentations emphasizing the relationship between
strategy and measurement and the potential of metrics in detailing both
the successes and the failures.
IT investment measures: In a breakout session, we
asked the group to produce three indicators for the financial resources
that an organization puts toward creating the information and
communications technology (ICT) infrastructure.
The first measure deals with current ongoing
investment in hardware. The second investment measure will incorporate
the human resources needed to operate and manage the new technology. The
final investment indicator relates to the length of time that there has
been a commitment to new technology.
ICT use measures: The first clinical information
system use measure we decided upon was: percentage of clinicians with an
active user-ID and password combination who actually login to the system
more than once each day. For the second use measure, we chose to focus
on the “timeliness” of the use of the system. In the end we selected:
percentage of patients with a completed chart (as defined by all data
needed entered and signed by all the appropriate clinicians) within 24
hours of their hospital discharge or outpatient visit.
Currently, there is tremendous emphasis on the use of
computer-based provider order entry to reduce the number of errors in
the ordering process. Therefore, we chose to measure the percentage of
all orders entered directly by the patient’s primary care provider.
IT – health outcome measures: Here, we decided not to
re-invent the wheel and selected three outcome metrics that have been
proposed within other healthcare evaluation initiatives.
The first measure attempts to provide some insight
into the IT system’s ability to catch errors or adverse events before
they happen. The second metric for health outcomes is related to the
system’s ability to send home patients at the most appropriate time –
not too early and not too late – both of which can lead to negative
outcomes. The final outcome measure pinpoints the length of stay in
hospital. The thinking is that with better information, patients are
seen faster and better decisions are made, allowing the patients to be
sent home sooner.
Kevin Leonard, PhD, is an Associate Professor,
Department of HPME, University of Toronto; Dean F. Sittig, PhD, is
Director, Applied Research in Medical Informatics, Kaiser Permanente.
Computerized simulation helps BC hospital improve OR throughput
By Peter Cech
Until recently, BC Children’s Hospital in Vancouver
faced the same heart-wrenching problem that plagues many hospitals
across Canada: there simply weren’t enough operating-room resources
available to cope with the overflow of young patients waiting for
surgery. With staff pleading for more access to ORs, Dr. Geoffrey Blair,
chief of surgery, felt increasingly boxed in.
There was never a shortage of suggestions to get more
kids through surgery, but making changes was always seen as too risky.
“Large organizations have a ‘cautious inertia’ that encourages
maintaining the present system and resource distribution, even when
everyone can see that the status quo stopped working,” says Dr. Blair.
What was needed was a new computer-based tool to
simulate and test how proposed changes would alter throughput and
patient waiting times, and how those changes might impact a variety of
hospital operations. Unfortunately, no such tool existed.
Luckily, Dr. Blair’s interest in operations research,
a branch of mathematical analysis known as “the science of decision
making”, convinced him it was possible to simulate the complexities of
delivering surgical care to the children of British Columbia.
After searching the Internet, he found help at his
doorstep. The Centre for Operations Excellence (COE) at the Sauder
School of Business at the University of British Columbia had the
expertise to develop computer models that would simulate actual patient
flows at BC Children’s.
Dr. Jacques LeBlanc, the assistant head of surgery at
Children’s, had been simultaneously corresponding with a company in the
United States that also had some simulation experience. However, one
meeting with COE director Dr. Martin Puterman and Mats Gerschman, the
director of industry at the COE, was all it took to convince Drs.
LeBlanc and Blair that an all-Canadian partnership with UBC would be far
more productive and potentially innovative in the development of new
patient flow simulation tools.
Drs. Blair and LeBlanc found the necessary seed
funding, a team was formed under the leadership of project manager Susan
Bockhold, and work began in the spring of 2004.
“We asked for something that would simulate the
system from the moment a patient enters BC Children’s for surgery, to
when they leave,” said Dr. Blair. “The COE team delivered a model that
knows how long we take to prep an OR, how long it takes each of our
surgeons to do a procedure, what steps are involved in moving patients
from our ICU to the appropriate unit, available bed space in our wards
and actual recovery times.”
COE teaches the use of simulation software and
extensive operations research methodologies, leading to a Masters’
degree in management operations research.
The COE team used off-the-shelf Arena simulation
software as a platform to develop the model. Their challenge was to
study the hospital system and convert it into a computer model using
operations research methodologies.
They produced a computerized system that was
validated by running a one-year simulation of patient flows and
comparing the results against what actually happened.
Next, “We added a number of random factors such as
unscheduled patients coming in through our emergency department and
unplanned fluctuations in staff levels due to illness,” says Dr. LeBlanc.
“It accounts for everything our staff could think of.”
The COE team, bolstered by Dr. Eric Cope from the
Sauder School of Business, and project analyst Craig O’Neill, a student
in the COE Masters’ program, is now also working with Children’s staff
to develop a block schedule analysis tool to simulate more complex
operating room rearrangements.
Drs. Blair and LeBlanc consulted other surgical staff
and administrators at BC Children’s for their ideas on how to improve
patient throughput. The team then agreed on 10 “scenarios” to test. “Our
starting point for any scenario is quality of care,” said Blair.
One-year simulations of the chosen scenarios were
then run through the computer models over 50 times, with the results
The results of those simulations were presented to
the Board of the Provincial Health Services Authority, which oversees
Children’s and other agencies serving the entire province of British
Columbia. Board members liked what they saw, and funding was secured to
extend the project.
Ideas that already show some promise include having
BC Children’s surgeons perform some non-urgent procedures off site. This
would free up operating rooms at BC Children’s for the more difficult
procedures that can only be done by their surgeons and pediatric support
The simulation project has also confirmed that some
ideas may not be as effective as hoped.
For example, BC Children’s surgical staff have talked
for 10 years about how a “scramble room” to absorb emergency procedures
would help by eliminating the need to bump scheduled operations. Dr
Blair says, “When that scenario was run, the Simulation Tool and Block
Scheduler indicated that our naïve plans for shifting resources to a
‘scramble room’ would fail to show any benefit.”
“Without these computer models, we could very well
have made some drastic and expensive changes to our OR schedule, only to
find a few years from now that there was no benefit,” said Dr. Blair.
What’s new in imaging? Find out at the RSNA
By Jerry Zeidenberg
CHICAGO – Over 60,000 radiologists, technologists and vendors converged
at the RSNA conference for an educational brush-up, to transact business
and to tap into the latest industry gossip.
This reporter, for example, had to travel to the
United States to find out that Ontario had embarked on its own
diagnostic imaging strategy – a phone call to the Ministry of Health, in
Toronto, confirmed the project is now in the preliminary stages.
To be sure, many significant announcements were made
at the week-long Radiological Society of North America show, which
started in late November and segued into December:
Connectivity and integration: Hospitals have
complained for years that their departments have trouble sharing data.
If departmental servers have evolved over time as incompatible,
best-of-breed solutions, integration becomes an exasperating and
However, Agfa Healthcare demonstrated a couple of
breakthroughs in this area.
First, the company is offering a portal-based
Electronic Patient Record solution that provides single sign-on and
accesses data contained in disconnected departmental systems.
Jason Knox, marketing manager for Agfa Healthcare,
noted that the Enterprise Clinical Portal solution is currently being
implemented at the two-campus Scarborough Hospital, in Toronto, in
partnership with AccessPt Inc., of Jackson, Mississippi.
The system is designed to give clinicians real-time
access to all kinds of data – radiology, lab, pharmacy, ADT, and others.
(Scarborough General and the Hamilton Health Sciences Corp. are the
first two medical organizations in Canada to sign-on for the solution.)
Unlike the repository approach used by some vendors,
in which departmental data are unified by dumping them into new servers
and constantly updating the information, the AccessPt solution ties
together existing servers – in real-time – without requiring the
acquisition of new hardware.
“We keep the costs down, because you don’t have to
invest in new servers or maintenance,” said Knox. He demonstrated how
the system displays departmental solutions on a single screen by using
folder tabs. Click on the tab, and you call up a patient’s information
from that department – such as radiology, lab, pharmacy, or others.
The software is displayed on a Netscape browser and
can be used with wireless networks. The solution was even shown running
on a wireless Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), a solution designed to
give clinicians easy access to data while on their rounds.
Agfa also demonstrated a region-wide solution to
integrating radiological data across a group of hospitals. In large,
multi-site implementations, different IDs are often used for the same
patient, making it very difficult to see a unified view of the patient’s
information across all sites.
As an answer, Agfa is has produced an Enterprise
Master Patient Index (powered by Initiate Systems of Chicago).
The company is currently implementing a solution that
will integrate RIS and PACS data at 15 sites in Northeastern Ontario.
Known as the NORrad hospitals, the sites are trading radiological images
and data through their own network, but have run into trouble as they’re
using three different information systems – Meditech, MediSolution and
Moreover, each of the hospitals has its own patient
ID numbering schemes. Guy Guindon, manager of diagnostic imaging at the
Timmins and District Hospital, and PACS manager for NORrad, said the
solution will create a unified system that allows clinicians to call up
the DI records of a patient all at once, wherever the patient sought
It does this through the use of probabilistic
algorithms. For example, it can automatically determine if the records
for John Smith, Johnathan Smith, Jonathan Smith and J. Smith, stored in
different hospitals, are for the same person by using birth dates, home
addresses, and other information.
This will allow radiologists and other clinicians to
call up multiple records for a patient, stored at hospitals throughout
the region, letting them make faster and better diagnoses.
Guindon said the 15 hospitals were scheduled to go
live with the system in early 2005 and plan to extend the solution to a
total of 31 sites over the next two years – all of the hospitals in
Ontario’s new LHIN 13. The term LHIN refers to the 14 Local Health
Integrated Networks recently created by the Ontario government.
Computed Radiography: There’s lots of activity in the
CR area. Christie Group of Montreal, the Canadian reseller and
integrator of Fuji systems in Canada, announced it had made two
large-scale sales. The company is currently installing 34 CR systems at
the Thames Valley Hospital Planning Partnership – Cooperative for
Diagnostic Imaging, based in London, Ont. It amounts to what Christie’s
marketing manager John McColl called “one of the largest CR awards ever
The equipment purchased includes 21 single-plate
readers and 11 multi-plate readers.
Moreover, in another big deal, Christie will also
install 34 Fuji CR units at Interior Health in British Colombia – 28
single-plate readers and six multi-plate readers.
Direct Radiography: Calgary-based Imaging Dynamics
Corp., once considered an underdog in an industry dominated by giants,
announced the 100th sale of its innovative, Xplorer direct radiography
The company continues to surprise onlookers by
attaining high marks from radiologists in evaluations of its
high-quality CCD technology, and in turn from industry onlookers who
thought it couldn’t be done by an independent start-up, let alone one
from the Canadian hinterland.
Among Canadian sites, the technology has been
installed at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. According to Guy
Morency, cardiac imaging manager for the Heart Institute, “the Xplorer
stood out in blind image quality comparison studies, with unmatched
levels of resolution.” Morency gave an off-the-cuff account of the
system to a group at the IDC pavilion.
While some radiologists and industry members have
criticized CCD technology as being not quite up to the level of other
direct radiography formats, IDC asserts that recent improvements in CCD
science have brought it up to par with standard DR at a fraction of the
In the past 12 months, the company has expanded
throughout North America and internationally, with sales in New York,
Washington, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Diego, Pittsburgh, as well as
to hospitals in Germany, Italy, France, Korea and China.
“It’s been a breakout year for us,” said Darryl
Stein, president of IDC.
For its part, GE Healthcare showed off a fascinating
new addition to its Innova cardiovascular and interventional imaging
The new twist combines an automated technique called,
InnovaBreeze, with digital flat-panel detector technology, to allow
doctors to see the blood vessels from the stomach down through the legs.
During imaging, the X-ray table moves to follow an
injection of contrast media from the aorta in the stomach area to the
feet. What’s innovative is the real-time subtraction of the surrounding
anatomy from the blood vessels, allowing physicians to follow the blood
flow down the legs and to target an area of disease. As well,
specialized software is used to combine different images taken down the
legs into a single image of the entire, contrast-filled peripheral
Storage: With the quantum leap in the volume of
images produced by multi-slice CTs, high-res MRIs, and increased usage
of DI in general, storage strategies are becoming a key issue for
Even though spinning media costs have dropped in
recent years, they’re still high enough to break the budget of radiology
departments unless they do some decent planning. That’s why some
industry experts call for a tiered solution, involving a mixture of
spinning disks and tape-based storage.
“We’re advising customers to bring back tape,” said
Donald Baune, global practice manager for StorageTek. “You want to be
using the right technology, at the right time, at the right cost.”
For most patients, said Baune, radiologists won’t
bother calling up images that are more than two years old, and added
that most prior images needed for comparison are less than a year old.
For this reason, it makes sense to use fast-access spinning media for
images up to a year old, secondary disk storage for those up to two
years old, and inexpensive tape archiving for those older than two
“There can be a 100-to-one cost difference between
disk and tape pricing,” said Baune. And while retrieval of historical
images stored on tape is relatively slow – about three minutes is
required – when they’re needed, it’s usually known well in advance and
they can be called up before they’re actually required.
PACS: Picture Archiving and Communication Systems
have been a hot topic for several years, and were much discussed at the
Significantly, Misys Healthcare is asserting that it
can provide PACS networks at half the cost of other vendors by cutting
down the complexity of typical systems. It does this, primarily, by
using a ‘brokerless’ system that eliminates the need for servers that
translate between HIS, RIS and PACS. In the Misys world, this problem
has been solved. “We bring down the cost by eliminating translation
databases and servers,” said David Jones, radiology product manager for
Misys Healthcare Systems (www.misyshealthcare.com)
Misys and a few other major vendors are also at the
forefront of a drive to create ‘lite’ versions of PACS networks for
independent imaging centres that operate outside of hospitals. Until
recently, most of these centres have shied away from installing PACS,
due to the perceived high cost.
However, radiologists working at imaging centres
usually read studies in hospitals, too, and have become accustomed to
PACS. They’re used to the productivity gains and tools they get in PACS
and want the same features at hand in imaging centres.
“We’ve got a solution targeted to centres with one,
five or up to seven doctors,” said Jones. “It’s got a practice
management solution, too.”
3D Imaging: A good deal of work is being done in 3D
reconstruction of images, taking advantage of the thousands of images
now generated by multi-slice CT scanners.
For its part, GE Healthcare demonstrated Xtream FX, a
technology that quickly and automatically reconstructs hundreds or
thousands of CT slices into 3D images, reducing the need for a
radiologist to direct this procedure. It’s expected to do wonders for
the workflow of radiology departments.
According to GE Healthcare, physicians have faced
trade-offs between high-resolution images and time required to manage
the large datasets. Studies have demonstrated that Xtream provides
thin-slice image reconstruction that is 3.7 to 6.9 times faster than
other industry standard platforms, and nearly three times faster than
the existing Xtream engine.
A team from Voxar, a company recently acquired by
display-systems specialist Barco, demonstrated a new 3D blood vessel
software package at the RSNA.
Voxar had acquired a reputation in recent years as
one of the leading 3D software developers for medical imaging; their
VesselMetrix system should be of interest to radiologists, vascular
surgeons, and others who diagnose and repair aneurysms and blocked
The software automates a good deal of the reading of
CT angiography studies and MR angiography exams. It also provides
fast-sizing of vessels, allowing for the optimal sized stent to be
selected and placed.
Computed Tomography: One observer quipped that CT and
MRI technologies are engaged in a back-and-forth rivalry, with one
temporarily gaining the upper hand through technological breakthroughs,
only to be surpassed when the other sustains its own technological
It’s certainly not slowing down the popularity of MR,
but CT is currently enjoying a moment of glory, due to the emergence of
64-slice scanners. The major modality producers – Philips, Siemens,
Toshiba and GE all showed their latest 64-slice CT offerings at the RSNA.
For its part, GE Healthcare basked in the limelight
of several awards and records for CT.
The company’s LightSpeed VCT, with its .35 second
gantry rotation and 40 millimeter coverage, is said to provide
volumetric scanning of the heart in only five beats—a record, according
to GE Healthcare. It can scan the whole body in just 10 seconds.
Monitors: There’s plenty of buzz about CT, MRI,
nuclear med and other fancy technologies for taking pictures. But
radiologists need very high-resolution monitors to read the scans
On this note, NEC/Mitsubishi, a joint-venture of the
giant Japanese electronics companies, announced its entry into the
medical market with diagnostic-quality flat-panel LCDs. The company,
whose North American unit is based in Itasca, Ill., started shipping a
3-megapixel grayscale monitor and a 2-megapixel grayscale monitor. Both
are 21-inch LCDs that are designed for radiologists.
NEC/Mitsubishi’s market research shows that
worldwide, healthcare providers are now junking their outmoded CRT
monitors, which use heavy, TV-style tubes, and are replacing them with
thin-panel LCDs. The folks at NEC/Mitsubishi have built self-calibration
into their MultiSync MD series of monitors, which automatically
maintains the luminance of the ‘white’ in the displays to the right
level. To properly compare images, a radiologist using two or three
monitors side-by-side must also have each monitor set to the same ‘whitepoint’.
The self-calibration feature makes it easier to re-arrange monitors in a
radiology department, since all of the MultiSynch MD units will provide
the right luminosity, said Todd Fender, product line manager,
Also addressing the calibration issue, Konica/Minolta
has produced a new line of camera-like meters that can be used to check
the luminance of monitors in radiology departments. National sales
manager David Robitaille also demonstrated the meters at the Ontario
Hospital Association HealthAchieve conference in Toronto, about two
weeks before the RSNA show. Robitaille noted that older monitors can
degrade or simply get out of whack when it comes to luminance, colour
temperature, and other variables.
The company’s Chroma Meters enable diagnostic imaging
departments to keep tabs on the performance of their display systems, to
the benefit of their radiologists.
Refurbished systems: For DI departments looking to
save money on equipment and service, one can turn to suppliers of
refurbished gear. A Canadian company, CCE Medical Equipment, of
Mississauga, Ont., is a specialist in restoring used ultrasound scanners
to tip-top condition. It’s been doing a roaring business in this area,
much of it in export sales to overseas nations.
CCE exhibited at the RSNA, which attracts a global
crowd. But it also has a steady client base in Canada, particularly
among imaging centres outside of hospitals, which have smaller equipment
budgets and are more bargain-conscious.
BACK TO TOP